This article describes 1999 MLA Web citation style (MLA
5th ed.). The style seems to have remained consistent in the 6th
of the Handbook (2003), which is the current
version. However, in
a new, 2008 publication, The MLA Style Manual and Guide to
Publishing, a new method of citation is offered. Thus, MLA
concurrent styles. Because the Handbook is the more
undergraduate research paper writers, its style has been retained here.
The style may at first seem complicated, but it is not. Look at the
and you'll see that for most Web sites, citation is straightforward.
Instant Help: If you arrived at this page from the "How to cite this page" link at the bottom of one of the VirtualSalt articles, follow this model for citing:
Harris, Robert. "Evaluating Internet Research Sources."In the example above, the first date is the date of the page itself, while the second date is the date you accessed (read or printed) the page.
VirtualSalt. 15 June 2007. 17 Oct. 2008
For further details, read on.
A spa chemistry expert recommends adding spa shock after using the spa "in order to help assure a sanitizer level in the water" (Schuster).
Note: If there are no page numbers, as is usual with Web documents, do not make up one or use the number one (as in "Jones 1") to cover the whole document. Use a number only when there is a number.
If you mention the author in your introduction, you do not need the parenthetical name, but such a practice is not recommended because it may make the quotation at first appear to have no citation:
Alan Schuster recommends adding spa shock "in order to help assure a sanitizer level" in your spa.
If there is no author named, use a short title from the article in the parenthetical reference and optionally refer to the organization in the text:
Gerber Baby Food company
notes that for the first three to five days of breast feeding, a
body "will produce a substance called colostrum. This thick, yellowy
is a milk rich in antibodies [. . .]" ("Newborn Feeding").
1. Author or editor's last name, then first name.
2. Title of the article in quotation marks.
3. Site name or site section that has collected the articles, or book title, either underlined or italicized.
4. Editor or compiler's name (if not used in No. 1 above).
5. Publication information for the printed version, if such exists. (Use the appropriate Periodical date: pages format for printed sources described below.)
6. Title of Web site (if No. 3 is a site section), project, or database. Use Home Page if no title.
7. Editor of the Web site or project or database, if any.
8. Version number, volume number, or other identifying number.
9. Date of publication, posting, or modification. (In Netscape, use "View," "Page Info" to get a "Last Modified" date if no date is given in the article itself.)
10. Total pages, sections, or paragraphs if numbered.
11. Name of corporation, organization, or institution sponsoring Web site. (Note that the URL will usually contain the organization's name or initials or short form and thus help you determine the name to use here.)
12. Date when you accessed the site (without a period following it).
13. URL of the document <in angle brackets> followed by a period.
Note that you will normally be using only about half a dozen
Lastname, Firstname. "Article Title." Site Name. Article date.With author:
Organization Name. Date of access <URL>.
Schuster, Alan. "Spa and Hot Tub Chemical Questions." Ask
Alan. 18 Aug. 2008. Aqua-Clear Industries. 10 Oct.With no author and no page date:
"Newborn Feeding." Welcome to Gerber. Gerber Corporation.With the Web site name the same as that of the organization (no organization name is specified):
18 Oct. 2008 <http://www.gerber.com/phases/newborn/feeding.html>.
Harris, Robert. "Evaluating Internet Research Sources." VirtualSaltSite with no site name:
15 June 2007. 17 Oct. 2008 <http://www.virtualsalt.com/evalu8it.htm>.
Lastname, Firstname. "Article Title." Home Page. Article date. Date of Access <URL>.
Site with page, paragraph, or section numbers:
"The Ahwahnee Principles." The Center for Livable Communities.
18 Aug. 2007. 23 Principles. Local Government Commission.
18 Oct. 2008 <http://www.lgc.org/clc/ahwan.html>.
Lastname, Firstname. "Article Title." Periodical NameDatabase with author:
Periodical Date: Page numbers. Database Name. Date of access
Rossman, Parker. "The Theology of Imagination: Science, ScienceDatabase with no author:
Fiction, and Religion." Witness Oct. 1989: 12+. SIRS
Researcher on the Web. 9 Nov. 2008 <http://researcher.sirs.com/
"Monkeying with Fetal Alcohol Syndrome." Science News 14
Sept. 1996: 170. InfoTrac Expanded Academic ASAP. 4 Nov. 2008
Lastname, Firstname. Title. City: Publisher, Date.Periodical:
Lastname, Firstname. "Title." Periodical day month year: pages.
Lastname, Firstname. "Title." Journal volume (year): pages.
Copyright 2001, 2008 by Robert Harris | How to cite this page
w w w . v i r t u a l s a l t . c o m
About the author:
Robert Harris is a writer and educator with more than 25 years of teaching experience at the college and university level. RHarris at virtualsalt.com